Yintoni Isifo Sombefu?

I-asthma yimeko yemiphunga engapheliyo echaphazela i-airways yakho okanye i-bronchial tubes. Ibangela ukuba imijelo yakho yomoya ibe mxinwa, idumbe kwaye ivelise i-mucus eyongezelelweyo, nto leyo eyenza kube nzima ukuphefumla. Ukucutheka kwemijelo yomoya kubangela ukuba uzive uphefumla nzima, uphefumla nzima okanye ukhohlela.

Isifo sombefu sinokuchaphazela abantu bayo yonke iminyaka kodwa ngelixa sinokuba sithambile kwabanye, kwabanye sinokuba nzima kakhulu. Kwabo bachaphazeleke kakhulu, inokuba nefuthe elikhulu kwimisebenzi yesiqhelo yemihla ngemihla okanye ibangele ubomi ukuhlaselwa sisifo se-asthma.

Akukho lunyango lwesifuba. Nangona kunjalo, inokulawulwa ngokufanelekileyo kunye neempawu ezilawulwayo. Asinguye wonke umntu onesifo sombefu oneempawu ezifanayo okanye ubungqongqo kwaye inokutshintsha ngokuhamba kwexesha. Esi sesinye sezizathu zokuba kubalulekile ukuba uhlolwe rhoqo nogqirha wakho okanye umongikazi wesifuba, ukuze bakwazi ukujonga isifo sakho se-asthma kunye nokulungisa unyango lwakho xa kukho imfuneko yoko.

Funda apha ngezantsi ukuze ufumane iinyani malunga nesifo se-asthma esinganyangekiyo, iimpawu noonobangela, iintlobo ezahlukeneyo kunye nendlela esifunyaniswa ngayo nokunyangwa.

Iimpawu Zombefu

Ezinye zeempawu kunye neempawu zibandakanya:

  • Ukuqhawukelwa ngumphefumlo
  • Uvakalelo loxinzelelo, ukuqina okanye iintlungu esifubeni sakho
  • Ukuhlahlela
  • Ukubetha okanye ukubetha isandi xa uphuma (ukubhuqa kuxhaphake kakhulu kubantwana abanesifuba)
  • Uhlaselo lokukhohlela kunye nokugoqoza okwenziwa mandundu xa unokubanda, umkhuhlane okanye esinye isifo sokuphefumla
  • Ingxaki yokulala ebusuku ngenxa yokungaphefumli, ukukhohlela okanye ukuvutha.

Asinguye wonke umntu onesifo sombefu oneempawu ezifanayo neempawu ezahlukileyo ezinokuthi zenzeke ngamaxesha ahlukeneyo onyaka nangamaxesha ahlukeneyo ebomini bakho. Iimpawu zinokwahluka ukusuka kubumnene ukuya kokubi ngakumbi.

Ukuba i-asthma yakho iyatshintsha okanye iyabhabha, emva koko unokufumana iimpawu ziba mandundu kunesiqhelo. Unokufumana kunzima ukuphefumla, amava ngakumbi ukuvutha kwaye kufuneka usebenzise i-inhaler ekhawulezayo yokunceda ngokukhawuleza.

Kwenzeka ntoni ngexesha lokuhlaselwa sisifuba?

Xa kuhlasela i-asthma, izihlunu ezijikeleze i-airways ziya kuqala ziqine- oku kubizwa ngokuba yi-bronchospasm. I-bronchospasm yenza isifuba sakho sizive siqinile kwaye sikwenze kube nzima ukubamba umphefumlo wakho. Unokwenza isandi sokubetha impempe xa uzama ukuphefumla, okanye ukuqala ukubetha. Umbane kwiindlela zomoya uyakudumba kwaye udumbe, kuya kubakho imveliso engaphezulu, kunye ne-mucus iya kuba nkulu kunesiqhelo.

Ukuba une-asthma ethambileyo, ukuthatha i-inhaler yakho yokunciphisa kufuneka uqalise ukunceda uhlaselo ngaphakathi kwemizuzu. Kodwa ukuba unesifo sombefu esibi kakhulu, usenokufuna unyango, kuba oko kunokusongela ubomi.

Iimpawu zokulumkisa kwangethuba zokuhlaselwa sisifuba

Isifo sombefu sisifo esinganyangekiyo kangangexesha elide, kodwa xa kuhlasela i-asthma, sisigulo esibi. Oku kuthetha ukuba kukuhlaselwa ngesiquphe okwenzeka kumntu ophethwe sisifo esinganyangekiyo.

Kukho imiqondiso yesilumkiso kwangoko onokuthi ujonge kuyo enokubonisa ukuba ukuhlaselwa sisifuba kunokwenzeka. Iimpawu zihlala zimnene, kodwa kunokuba luncedo ukuziqonda ukuze wenze konke okusemandleni ukukhusela uhlaselo lwesifuba.

Iimpawu zokuqala zesilumkiso kunye neempawu ekufuneka ujonge kuzo zibandakanya:

  • Ukuqhawukelwa ngumphefumlo
  • Ukudinwa kakhulu xa uzilolonga
  • Ukuphefumla nokukhohlela emva kokuzilolonga
  • Ukuba nokukhohlela rhoqo, ngakumbi ukuba kubi ngakumbi busuku
  • Ukwehla kokusebenza kwemiphunga kwesiqhelo (okunokulinganiswa ngokusebenzisa imitha yokuhamba okuphezulu)
  • Ukungavumi okanye ukubanda, kubandakanya ukuxinana kwempumlo, ukuthimla, umqala obuhlungu kunye nentloko.

Ukuba unesicwangciso sokusebenza se-asthma endaweni, unokuhlengahlengisa amayeza akho ngokuhambelana nale miqondiso yokulumkisa kwangoko. Ukuba awunaso isicwangciso samanyathelo, okanye uneempawu zesifo sombefu, cela ingcebiso kugqirha wakho.

Zibangelwa yintoni?

Oyena nobangela wesifo sombefu akaziwa kwaye izinto ezinokubangela umntu zinokwahluka kumntu nomntu. Nangona kunjalo, kuyaziwa ukuba Isifuba sombefu sibaleka kwiintsapho (ukuba umzali okanye umntakwabo unesifo se-asthma, kunokwenzeka ukuba unaso) kwaye iimeko zendalo zingadlala indima.

Isifo sombefu sihlala sisenzeka ngenxa yempendulo yenkqubo yomzimba yokuzikhusela kwizigulo zendalo, ezifana nomungu okanye ukungunda kothuli. Asinguye wonke umntu ovelele kwi-allergen efanayo asabela kuyo, okanye asabele ngokwahlukileyo. Nangona izizathu zokuba i-allergen ethile ichaphazela umntu omnye kunabanye ayicacanga ncam, kunokwenzeka ukuba izakhi zofuzo ezinokufunyanwa zibandakanyeke.

Ezinye izinto ezinobungozi ezinokunyusa amathuba akho okuphuhlisa i-asthma zibandakanya:

  • Genetics -Ukuba nelungu losapho, njengomzali okanye umntakwabo, onesifo se-asthma
  • Ukuba ne-allergies, njenge-hay fever, i-eczema okanye ukutya okungafunekiyo kokutya (ezi ziyaziwa njengeemeko ze-atopic)
  • Ukuba ngumntu otshayayo
  • Ukuvezwa kukutshaya okanye ukutshaya, kubandakanya ngexesha lobuntwana okanye lokukhulelwa
  • Ukuba ne-bronchiolitis (usulelo olusezantsi lokuphefumla) njengomntwana
  • Ukuzalwa ngaphambi kwexesha okanye ngokuzalwa unesisindo esiphantsi.

Abacebisi

Iindlela zomoya eziya kwimiphunga zihlala zivulekile, zivumela umoya ukuba ungene ngokukhululekileyo nangaphandle kwemiphunga. Nangona kunjalo, abantu abane-asthma banee-airways ezibuthathaka nezicaphukisayo nezitshisileyo. Iimpawu zesifo sombefu zibangelwa xa umoya uqinisa okanye unyanzelekile ekuphenduleni izinto ezibangela ukuba kubekho indawo encinci yokuphefumla.

Iimpawu zinokubangelwa zizinto ezahlukeneyo eziphazamisayo, izinto kunye neemeko. Izinto ezaziwayo ezibangela zibandakanya:

  • Ukubonakaliswa kukutshaya, ungcoliseko okanye umsi
  • Izifo zokuphefumula ezifana nokubanda okanye umkhuhlane
  • Ukunyanga komzimba, njengothuli, izilwanyana, iintsiba okanye umungu
  • Utshintsho kwimozulu, kubandakanya umoya obandayo, iindudumo, ubushushu, ukufuma okanye naluphi na utshintsho ngequbuliso kubushushu
  • Ukuthatha amayeza, anjengezipilisi zokuthomalalisa iintlungu
  • Ukufumana iimvakalelo ezinamandla ezinje ngoxinzelelo
  • Ukuvezwa kumanzi okanye ukungunda
  • Umsebenzi womzimba, ngakumbi xa usenza oko kwimozulu ebandayo neyomileyo
  • I-Sulphites kunye ne-preservatives zongezwa kwezinye ukutya kunye neziselo, kubandakanya iziqhamo ezomisiweyo, i-shrimp, iitapile ezicwangcisiweyo, ibhiya kunye newayini
  • Isifo se-reflux se-Gastroesophageal (GERD), apho isisu esiswini sibuyela emqaleni wakho.

Ukuba uyazi ukuba zeziphi izinto ezinokubangela ukuba ubenakho kufuneka uzame ukuziphepha, apho kunokwenzeka khona, ukunceda ukulawula isifo sakho sombefu.

Iindidi zesifuba

Ngokungafaniyo nezinye iimeko zempilo, akukho luhlobo lunye lwesifo sombefu- sichaphazela abantu abohlukeneyo ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo. Njengoko ulwazi kunye nokuqonda kuye kwaphucuka ukutyhubela iminyaka, iingcali zonyango zichonge iintlobo ezahlukeneyo.

Ukwazi ukuba loluphi uhlobo lwesifo sombefu onaso kunokukunceda ufunde indlela yokuyilawula ngokukuko kunye nokunciphisa umngcipheko wokudibana nezinto ezibangela ukuba ubekho.

Isifuba Se-Asma Esibangelwa Kukwalana Nezinto

I-Allergic, okanye i-atopic asthma, luhlobo lwe-asthma olubangelwa zizinto ezifana ne-pollen, izilwanyana ezinothuli, uboya bezilwanyana okanye iintsiba. Ukuba unayo Isifuba somzimba, Unamathuba aphezulu okuba ube nezinye iindlela zokwaliwa, ezinje ngehay fever, ukutya komzimba okanye i-eczema.

Isifuba somsebenzi emsebenzini

Kubangelwa ngumsebenzi wakho okanye ngumsebenzi. Ihlala inxulunyaniswa ne-asthma ye-aleji kwaye inokubangelwa kukuvezwa ngumsi, imichiza, uthuli okanye ezinye izinto ohlangana nazo rhoqo ngexesha lomsebenzi.

Isifo sombefu sonyaka

Kwenzeka kuphela ngamaxesha athile onyaka. Iimpawu zisenokuvela ehlotyeni xa amazinga omungu ephezulu, okanye ebusika xa imozulu ibanda kakhulu.

Isifo sombefu esinganyangekiyo

I-non-allergic-, okanye i-asthma ye-non-atopic, luhlobo lwe-asthma olungabangelwa kukungabikho komzimba. Olu hlobo luhlala luqala mdala xa umdala.

Isifo sombefu esibangelwa kukuzilolonga

Ngamanye amaxesha, inokubangelwa kukuzilolonga komzimba kwaye ibizwa Isifo sombefu esibangelwa ngumthambo. Iimpawu ziba mandundu zombini ngexesha nasemva kokuzilolonga.

Isifuba somntwana

Isifuba somntwana iqhelekile kwaye iqala ukwenzeka ngexesha lobuntwana. Ngamanye amaxesha olu hlobo lunokuba ngcono okanye lunyamalale ngokupheleleyo njengoko usiba mdala, nangona lusenokubuya xa sele umdala.

Isifo sombefu sabantu abadala

Isifo sombefu sabantu abadala Ibizwa njalo njengoko iqala ebudaleni, kunokuba kubuntwana. Ngamanye amaxesha kubhekiswa njenge-asthma emva kwexesha. Ingabangelwa kukusebenza kunye nokusingqongileyo, iihomoni zabasetyhini, ukutshaya kunye noxinzelelo lobomi.

Isifo sombefu esinzima

I-asthma enzima luhlobo lwesifo se-asthma ekunzima ukusilawula nokulawula. Iimpawu zisenokwenzeka ukuba ziqhubeke, ngaphandle konyango, kwaye uhlaselo oluqhelekileyo luqhelekile.

Isifuba somoya esiqatha

Isifuba somoya esiqatha ichaphazela abantu kakhulu kwaye inokuba nefuthe elikhulu kubomi bemihla ngemihla. Unako ukuba nesifo se-asthma esibuhlungu xa iimpawu zakho ziqhubeka nangona unikwe amanani aphezulu e-inhaled steroids okanye amanye amayeza, kwaye unokufuna iipilisi zexesha elide ze-steroid.

Ukuqondwa

Ukuba ugqirha wakho ukrokrela ukuba une-asthma, baya kukubuza malunga neempawu zakho kwaye bathathe iimvavanyo zokuxilonga yona. Baza kujonga impumlo yakho, umqala, kunye nomoya ophezulu, ukumamela ukuphefumla kwakho usebenzisa i-stethoscope kwaye uthathe imbali yonyango jikelele.

Uvavanyo lomsebenzi wemiphunga luya kwenziwa ukuze ubone ukuba isebenza kakuhle kangakanani imiphunga yakho. Uvavanyo oluqhelekileyo olusetyenzisiweyo lubandakanya:

  • I-Spirometry – apho uvuthela khona kumatshini olinganisa ukuba ungaphefumla ngokukhawuleza kangakanani kwaye ungakanani na umoya onokuwubamba emiphungeni yakho.
  • Uvavanyo lokuhamba okuphezulu – apho uvuthela kwisixhobo esincinci esiphathwa ngesandla, kwaye silinganisa ukuba ungaphefumla ngokukhawuleza kangakanani na.
  • Uvavanyo lwe-FeNO – apho uphefumla kumatshini olinganisa inqanaba lenitric oxide ekuphefumleni kwakho (oku kunokuqaqambisa ukudumba kwemiphunga).

Ngamanye amaxesha, unokuba ne-x-ray yesifuba ukulawula ezinye izizathu zeempawu zakho.

Kuxhomekeka kwiziphumo zovavanyo lwakho, isifuba sakho sombefu siya kubekwa kudidi olunye ngokubanzi:

Ukuhlelwa Kwesifo SombefuIimpawu kunye neMpawu
Uphakathi kancinciIimpawu ezinobulali ukuya kwiintsuku ezimbini ngeveki ukuya kuthi ga kubusuku obubini ngenyanga
UzingisileIimpawu ezingaphezu kwesibini ngeveki, kodwa hayi ngaphezulu kwesinye ngosuku olunye
Ukuzingisa okuphakathiIimpawu kube kanye ngemini nangaphezulu kobusuku obunye ngeveki
Uyazingisa ngokuzingisileyoIimpawu kulo lonke usuku kwiintsuku ezininzi kwaye rhoqo ebusuku

Unyango kunye namayeza

Isifuba unyango kunye namayeza ukunceda ukulawula iimpawu, ukuze uhlale ubomi obusebenzayo kunye obuqhelekileyo. Njengoko wonke umntu efumana isifuba ngendlela eyahlukileyo, ugqirha wakho uya kubeka isicwangciso sonyango sombefu esilungiselelwe wena.

Ezi ndidi zimbini ze-inhalers ezisetyenziselwa ukunciphisa kunye nokukhusela i-asthma zezi:

  • Reliever inhaler- le isetyenziselwa ukunyanga iimpawu zakho xa zisenzeka kwaye zihlala zisebenza kwimizuzu embalwa. I-inhaler ihlala iluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka.
  • Isithinteli inhaler - oku kuqulethe iyeza le-steroid kwaye lisetyenziswa yonke imihla, njengoko kumiselwe, ukunciphisa inani lokudumba kunye novakalelo kwiindlela zakho zomoya. Kuya kunceda ukumisa iimpawu zesifuba ezenzeka kwaye zihlala zimdaka.

Kuxhomekeka kwiimpawu zakho, iipilisi okanye ezinye iindlela zonyango zinokumiselwa. Unyango olongezelelekileyo, olukhethekileyo umthambo wokuphefumla, unokucetyiswa ukukunceda ufunde ukuphefumla ngcono nesifuba kunye nokwandisa amandla akho emiphunga, amandla kunye nempilo.

Ukuphila Ngcono noAsma