Uxilongo kunye nonyango

Ngelixa ukhohlokhohlo lusenokungabi yingozi ebomini – wonke umntu okhohlelayo kunye nokukhohlela kunokunceda ukususa umoya wokucaphuka – ukukhohlela okungapheliyo kungabonakalisa ezinye iimeko zempilo.

Xa ukhohlokhohlo luzingisa, lunokucaphukisa kwaye ludinise. Ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo lunokuphazamisa ubuthongo kwaye lubangele intloko ebuhlungu, ukuhlanza, ukungakwazi ukuzibamba, kunye nokwaphuka kweimbambo. Esi sesona sizathu sokuba kutheni kufuneka ubone ugqirha ukuba ufumana ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo.

Yintoni ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo?

Ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo lukhohlokhohlo oluhlala ngaphezu kweeveki ezintathu. Ngamanye amaxesha, ukukhohlela okungapheliyo kubantu abadala okanye abantwana kunokuhlala iinyanga okanye iminyaka. Inokuba buhlungu, ngakumbi ukuba awuwazi unobangela wokhohlokhohlo.

Malunga ne-12% yabantu base-UK bafumana ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo mihla le okanye ngeveki, ngelixa malunga ne-30 yezigidi zabantu minyaka le batyelela iikliniki zabangalaliswayo ngenxa yemicimbi yokhohlokhohlo e-United States.

Owasetyhini oneempawu zokukhohlela okungapheliyo

Amaxesha amaninzi, ukukhohlela okungapheliyo kwenzeka kunye nezinye iimpawu kunye neempawu. Ezi mpawu zinokubandakanya:

  • Ukuphefumla kunye nokuphefumla kancinci
  • Hoarseness yelizwi
  • Impumlo evuzayo
  • Isifuba esibuhlungu
  • Ukucoca rhoqo umqala
  • Ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo ebusuku
  • Ukulahlekelwa bubuthongo ngenxa yokukhohlela
  • Intloko
  • Utywala.

Izizathu

Zininzi izizathu ezinokuthi zibekho, kubandakanywa iimeko zonyango esele zikhona okanye ukutshaya. Ngelixa kunqabile, ukhohlokhohlo oluzingileyo lunokubangelwa yimeko yempilo eyingozi, efana nomhlaza. Yiyo loo nto kubalulekile ukubonana nogqirha ukuba ukhohlokhohlo lwakho luyaqhubeka, kwaye ukuba luvelisa iphlegm okanye igazi.

Izinto ezibangela ukhohlokhohlo oluhlala luhleli ziquka:

  • Isifuba (kubandakanywa Isifo sombefu)
  • I-bronchitis engapheliyo (enzima, ukuvuvukala kwexesha elide kunye nokucaphuka kwe-bronchi)
  • Ukuthontsiza kwe-Postnasal (incindi eyongezelelweyo ephuma empumlweni ethi ikhuphe umqala, ibangele ukuba ukhohlele)
  • Isifo seGastrointestinal Reflux (GERD)
  • I-Sinusitis (ukuvuvukala kwe-sinus, imingxuma evulekileyo entloko enceda ukucoca kunye nokufumisa umoya esiwuphefumlayo)
  • Pneumonia
  • Isifo esinganyangekiyo semiphunga (COPD)
  • Usulelo lwemiphunga
  • Umhlaza wemiphunga
  • Izinto ezingcolisa umoya
  • Ukhohlokhohlo (pertussis)
  • Ukuphefumla (ukuphefumla kwizinto zangaphandle okanye amasuntswana)
  • I-ACE inhibitors (iziyobisi ezisetyenziselwa ukunyanga uxinzelelo lwegazi oluphezulu)
  • Utywala
  • Ukutshaya.

Uvavanyo loxilongo lungabandakanya:

Ukuphonononga iimvavanyo

Iimvavanyo zemifanekiso zinokuqhutywa ukufumana unobangela. Ngelixa i-X-reyi isenokungabonakalisi izizathu eziqhelekileyo ezifana ne-asthma okanye i-postnasal drip, ingasetyenziselwa ukuchonga izifo ezifana nosulelo lwe-sinus kunye ne-pneumonia. Basenokufumanisa nezinye izifo zemiphunga ezinyusa umngcipheko wokuba nokhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo. I-Computerized tomography (CT) scans ingasetyenziselwa ukujonga imiphunga kunye ne-sinuses ukwenzela izifo.

Iimvavanyo zaseLab

Uvavanyo lwaseLab lusetyenziswa xa kuvavanywa ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo ngephlegm. Ukuba ufumana ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo olunofinya olunemibala – tyheli, obomvu, omdaka, oluhlaza, okanye nokuba mhlophe – ugqirha wosapho lwakho unokuthatha isampuli yomfimfi ukuvavanya ibhaktheriya. I-mucus enemibala inokukhomba kwintsholongwane ethile okanye usulelo lwentsholongwane, olufana ne-bronchitis, isifo sephepha, okanye inyumoniya.

Iimvavanyo zokusebenza kwemiphunga

Iimvavanyo zokusebenza kwemiphunga zijonga ukuba unokuphefumla kangakanani na kwaye azisoloko zingonakali. Zihlala zisetyenziselwa ukuxilonga iimeko ezifana neCOPD kunye nesifuba.

Olona vavanyo luqhelekileyo lwemiphunga luvavanyo lwe-spirometry, apho uya kucelwa ukuba uthathe umoya ogcweleyo kwaye ukhuphe ngamandla kangangoko kunokwenzeka. I-spirometer iya kuqhotyoshelwe kumlomo oya kuwuphefumla, kwaye oku kuya kulinganisa ukuba ungakanani umoya onokuphefumla ngomzuzwana omnye kunye nomthamo womoya opheleleyo onokuphefumla ngokuphefumula omnye.

Olunye uvavanyo lubandakanya iimvavanyo zomthamo wemiphunga, uvavanyo lobungakanani bomthamo, kunye novavanyo lokuzilolonga.

Uvavanyo lomda

Kwiimeko apho ugqirha wakho wosapho akakwazi ukufumanisa unobangela wokukhohlela kwakho, banokuodola iimvavanyo ezikhethekileyo ze-scope ezifana ne-rhinoscopy kunye ne-bronchoscopy. Oku kuya kubandakanya ukufakwa kombhobho obhityileyo ngokukhanya kunye ne-lens nokuba yimpumlo okanye emlonyeni. I-biopsy inokuthatyathwa kwezi ndawo ukujonga izinto ezingaqhelekanga.

  • I-Rhinoscopy ibandakanya ukusebenzisa irhinoscope ukujonga izono, iipaseji ngeempumlo, kunye nendlela yomoya ephezulu.
  • I-bronchoscopy isebenzisa i-bronchoscope ukujonga iindlela zomoya kunye nemiphunga.

Ukuxilongwa kubantwana

Kwimeko yokukhwehlela okungapheliyo kubantwana, i-spirometry kunye ne-x-ray yesifuba idla ngokuqhutyelwa ukufumanisa imbangela yokukhwehlela. Wena nomntwana wakho niya kubuzwa imibuzo malunga nempilo yakhe, enje ngokuba ukhohlokhohlo luqale nini na, indlela aziva ngayo, uhlobo lokhohlokhohlo (nokuba lukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo okanye lukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo olunemifinya), kunye nokuba yintoni enokuba ibangele ukhohlokhohlo.

impatho

Kubalulekile ukwazi unobangela phambi kokuba uqalise unyango. Kwezinye iimeko, kunokubangelwa ziimeko ezininzi eziphantsi.

Unyango lokhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo lunokubandakanya oku kulandelayo:

  • Ukusetyenziswa kwamayeza okhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo: Amayeza ahlukeneyo anokusetyenziswa ukunyanga ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo. Ugqirha wakho wosapho unokukumisela amayeza afana namayeza okubulala iintsholongwane (ukuba ibhaktheriya ingunobangela wokhohlokhohlo lwakho), iziyobisi zesifuba, izithinteli ze-asidi (ukunyanga i-asidi reflux), i-antihistamines, okanye i-corticosteroids (yokunyanga i-allergies).
  • Izithinteli zokukhohlela: Ukufumanisa ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo kunye nonobangela walo kunokuthatha ixesha, ngoko ke ugqirha wakho wosapho unokukuyalela izinto ezithomalalisa ukhohlokhohlo ukuze unciphise iimpawu zakho ngelixa ulindele iziphumo zovavanyo lwakho. Musa ukusebenzisa amayeza afumaneka ngaphandle kwekhawuntara ukunyanga ukhohlokhohlo kubantwana abangaphantsi kweminyaka emithandathu ngaphandle kokuba iyeza lelokuthomalalisa iintlungu okanye lokunciphisa umkhuhlane.
  • Ii-opiates: Amayeza afumaneka ngaphandle kwekhawuntara awakhuthazwa ukuba anyange ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo kuba akukho bungqina bubalulekileyo bokusebenza kwawo. Nangona kunjalo, unyango lwangoku lokukhohlela okungapheliyo lubandakanya ii-opiates ezifana ne-codeine, i-morphine, kunye ne-diamorphine. I-opiates kufuneka ithathwe kuphela xa ichazwe ngugqirha wakho kunye ne-dosage efanelekileyo, njengoko kuyalelwe.
  • I-Gefapixant: Eli chiza litsha le-Merck ngoku liphantsi kovavanyo yi-US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Uvavanyo lwe-Gefapixant lubonise iziphumo ezithembisayo zokunyanga ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo, ngakumbi ukhohlokhohlo oluqhawukayo kunye nolungapheliyo olungachazwanga, kwaye kuyathenjwa ukuba luya kufumaneka lula njengokhetho lonyango kwixesha elizayo elingekude kakhulu. Njengoko i-P2X3 i-receptors ifumaneka kwi-lining ye-airways kwi-fibers ye-nerve ye-sensory, ichiza luhlobo lwe-P2X3 ye-receptor antagonist ekhethiweyo esebenza ngokuzibophelela kwi-receptors kunye nokunciphisa ukusebenza kwee-nerve sensory. Oku kunceda ukunciphisa ukukhohlela okungapheliyo. Izifundo ezibini ezingahleliwe, ezingaboniyo, ezilawulwa yi-placebo-ezibizwa ngokuba yi-COUGH-1 kunye ne-COUGH-2-zifumene ukuba ukuthatha i-45mg ye-Gefapixant kabini imihla ngemihla kunciphisa ubunzima bokukhohlela okungapheliyo malunga ne-50% kunye nokuphucula umgangatho wobomi.

Ukuba uyatshaya, ukuyeka okanye ukunciphisa ukutshaya kwakho kunokunceda ukunciphisa iimpawu. Thetha nogqirha wakho ngengcebiso kunye nenkxaso malunga nendlela yokuyeka.

Esinye seziphumo ebezingalindelekanga zokuthatha iyeza le-ACE inhibitor inokuba lukhohlokhohlo. Ukuba unokhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo kwaye uthathe la mayeza, ugqirha wakho wosapho unokukumisela elinye iyeza.

Ukuba ukhohlokhohlo lwakho lwalile ukuyeka nangona ufumana unyango, usenokuba unokhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo (CRC). Abantu abane-CRC abanako ukucinezela ukhohlokhohlo lwabo. Nangona kunjalo, olu hlobo lwenkani, ukukhohlela okungaqondakaliyo kunokulawulwa ngokusebenzisa zombini iindlela ze-pharmacological and non-pharmacological.

Unyango lwasekhaya

Amayeza asekhaya akufuneki athathe indawo kagqirha wosapho lwakho okanye izikhokelo zonyango zokunyanga imeko yakho. Nangona kunjalo, amanye amayeza asekhaya anokunceda ukuthomalalisa ukukhohlela kwakho kunye nokukhawulezisa ukuchacha kwakho.

Apha ngezantsi kukho amayeza okhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo onokufuna ukuwazama.

  • Sebenzisa izinto zokuthambisa umoya: Ukunyakamisa umoya kunokunceda, ngakumbi kubantu abanokhohlokhohlo olomileyo olungapheliyo. Thatha ishawa ezinomphunga okanye usebenzise isimswakama-manzi esipholileyo.
  • Sela ulwelo oluninzi: Ulwelo olufana namanzi lunceda ukuba unciphise umfinya osemqaleni wakho ngelixa ugcina umanzi. Usenokuthatha ulwelo olufudumeleyo njengeti kunye nomhluzi ukuthomalalisa umqala wakho ukuba kubuhlungu.
  • Thatha ubusi: Ubusi liyeza lendalo lokukhohlela okungapheliyo. Ukusebenzisa iitispuni enye okanye ezimbini zobusi kunokunceda ukukhulula ukhohlokhohlo lwakho olomileyo. Nangona kunjalo, musa ukunika ubusi kubantwana abangaphantsi komnye njengoko inokuthi iqulethe ibhaktheriya eyingozi kubo.
  • Kuphephe ukutshaya icuba: Ukutshaya kunokucaphukisa imiphunga njengoko kunokubangela okanye kubangele ukhohlokhohlo. Kufuneka ukuphephe ukutshaya okanye ukuphefumla umsi wecuba.
  • Yitya iitshokolethi: Uphononongo lubonisa ukuba i-theobromine equlethwe kwitshokholethi inokucinezela umsebenzi wemithambo yevagus, ebangela ukukhohlela.
  • Thatha iminti: I-Mint inceda ukukhulula imifinya emiphungeni. Enye yeendlela ezilula zokuthatha i-mint kukusela ngendlela yeti.
  • IMenthol: I-Menthol liyeza eliqhelekileyo lokukhohlela. Iyanceda ukuthomalalisa iimpawu zokukhohlela okungapheliyo kwaye idla ngokufumaneka kwiilozenji.
  • Yitya i-turmeric: I-Turmeric inceda ukunciphisa iingxaki zokugaya. Ukuba iGERD ingunobangela wokhohlokhohlo lwakho olungapheliyo, unokufuna ukucinga ngokuthatha i-turmeric.

Ngaba ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo luyanyangeka?

Ewe, inokunyangeka. Owona mceli mngeni mkhulu ekunyangeni ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo kukufumanisa unobangela wako.

Nje ukuba unobangela wokhohlokhohlo lwakho uchongiwe, ugqirha wakho angaqalisa unyango olululo ngoko nangoko. Ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo luthi shwaka xa kusenziwa unyango olululo.

Ngugqirha onjani onyanga ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo?

Oogqirha abohlukeneyo banokunyanga ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba unokhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo oluye lwala ukuhamba, kufuneka ubone ugqirha wakho wosapho ngoko nangoko.

Ababoneleli ngononophelo olusisiseko njengogqirha wakho wosapho bahlala beqala ukuxilongwa kokuqala kunye nonyango lokukhohlela okungapheliyo. Nangona kunjalo, kwezinye iimeko, unokuthunyelwa kwingcali.

Ukuba unokhohlokhohlo olumandla, ungathunyelwa kwisebe likaxakeka, apho unokunyangwa yingcali yezamayeza kaxakeka.

Kukwakho neengcali ezinyanga ukhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo ngokuxhomekeke kunobangela.

  • I-allergist ukwimeko entle kakhulu yokunyanga isigulana esinokhohlokhohlo olungapheliyo olubangelwa kukwalana.
  • Ingcali yemiphunga yingcaphephe ekunyangeni izifo zemiphunga kunye nezifo zomoya.
  • I-gastroenterologist ngugqirha ojongene nokunyanga izifo zendlela yokwetyisa. Ukuba oyena nobangela wokukhohlela kwakho okungapheliyo yi-gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD), ungathunyelwa kulo gqirha.
  • I-otolaryngologist ngugqirha ojongene nezifo zendlebe, impumlo kunye nomqala. Ngokuqhelekileyo zibizwa ngokuba yi-ENT.

Ukuba unokhohlokhohlo oluthathe ngaphezu kweeveki ezintathu ukuya kwezisibhozo, zama ukungothuki. Lukhohlokhohlo ekusenokwenzeka ukuba lubangelwe ziimeko zendalo esingqongileyo, indlela yokuphila, okanye imeko yempilo esisiseko. Kungcono ukubona ugqirha wakho wosapho ngokukhawuleza.

Ukuba udidekile kwaye uziva ufuna ukuthetha nomntu okanye ukubuza imibuzo, zikhululeke ukufikelela. Xhumana ne-GAAPP okanye enye yethu imibutho yamalungu ngayo nayiphi na eminye imibuzo.

imithombo

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  4. UPapasho lwezeMpilo lwaseHarvard. (2019, ngoFebruwari 7). Ukukhohlela okungapheliyo, izizathu eziqhelekileyo kunye nonyango. https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/that-nagging-cough
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